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Mathematician

United StatesMathematician

Phyllis Chinn

Phyllis Zweig Chinn, a renowned American mathematician, made significant contributions to the field of mathematics alongside her work in women’s studies and teaching preparation. Her passion for mathematics has had a profound impact on society, inspiring future generations. Chinn’s groundbreaking research in graph theory and her dedication to advancing mathematics education have solidified her legacy as a trailblazer in her field.

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ItalyMathematician

Maria Gaetana Agnesi

Maria Gaetana Agnesi was an Italian mathematician, philosopher, theologian, and humanitarian. She is considered one of the most important female mathematicians in history. Agnesi displayed remarkable intellectual abilities from a young age, mastering multiple languages and studying advanced subjects like ballistics and geometry. She published her renowned work, “Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana,” which solidified her reputation as a brilliant mathematician. Despite facing challenges and limitations as a woman in academia, Agnesi’s intelligence and dedication paved the way for future generations of women in mathematics.

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EnglandMathematician

Grace Chisholm Young

Grace Chisholm Young was an English mathematician who made significant contributions to mathematics and played a vital role in advancing women’s acceptance in academia. She became the first person to attain a First-class degree at both Oxford and Cambridge Universities in any subject. Her dedication to the advancement of women’s education and empowerment has had a lasting impact on the field of mathematics.

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United StatesEconomistMathematician

Beatrice Aitchison

Beatrice Aitchison (1908-1997) was an American mathematician, statistician, and transportation economist. She played a crucial role in shaping transportation policies in the United States and made significant contributions to her field. Aitchison’s remarkable journey from academia to government service underscored her determination, intelligence, and commitment to public service, helping to improve the efficiency of government and postal operations. Her contributions continue to inspire and influence generations of mathematicians, economists, and policymakers.

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BelgiumMathematicianPhysicist

Ingrid Daubechies

Baroness Ingrid Daubechies is a Belgian physicist and mathematician known for her work with wavelets in image compression. She has made significant contributions to the field of mathematics, image processing, and art restoration. Her groundbreaking research and expertise in geometric analysis and image processing have shaped the way we compress digital images and authenticate works of art. Daubechies has been recognized with numerous awards and honors for her exceptional contributions to the field, including a MacArthur Fellowship and the Gauss Prize of the International Mathematical Union.

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NetherlandsRussiaJewish

Tatyana Afanasyeva

Tatyana Alexeyevna Afanasyeva was a Russian/Dutch mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to statistical mechanics. Despite the limitations imposed on women at the time, she pursued her education and eventually settled in Leiden, where she collaborated with her husband, Paul Ehrenfest, and made groundbreaking advancements in the field. Her work attracted the attention of renowned physicist Albert Einstein, solidifying her legacy in the scientific community.

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SpainMathematician

María Andrea Casamayor

María Andrea Casamayor de La Coma, born in Saragossa, Spain in 1720, was a Spanish mathematician, writer, and girls’ school teacher. Her significant contributions to arithmetic challenged the prevailing notion that mathematics was the exclusive domain of men, and she became one of the few 18th century Spanish women scientists and mathematicians whose work has been preserved.

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United StatesEducatorMathematician

Sylvia Bozeman

Sylvia D. Trimble Bozeman is an American mathematician and mathematics educator. Growing up in Camp Hill, Alabama, she was encouraged by her teachers and parents to pursue her education. She graduated as the salutatorian of her class and went on to earn her Ph.D. in mathematics, becoming one of the few Black women in the United States to do so. Bozeman has been dedicated to advancing women in mathematics through teaching and her research in operator theory and image processing.

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United StatesMathematician

Lynne Butler

Lynne Marie Butler (born 1959) is an American mathematician known for her significant contributions to the fields of algebraic combinatorics, group theory, and mathematical statistics. She has made remarkable strides in her career as a professor of mathematics at Haverford College.

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FranceRussiaMathematician

Liouba Bortniker

Liouba Bortniker (1860 – after 1903) was a trailblazing mathematician from the Russian Empire who achieved significant milestones for women in academia. She was the first woman to earn an agrégation in mathematics, the inaugural winner of the Peccot–Vimont prize, and the first woman to publish in the Comptes rendus de l’Académie des Sciences. Her groundbreaking research in cyclides and her impact as an educator continue to inspire and pave the way for future generations of women mathematicians.

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Côte d'IvoireMathematician

Joséphine Guidy Wandja

Joséphine Guidy Wandja (born 1945, also Guidy-Wandja) is an Ivorian mathematician. She is best known for being the first African woman to obtain a PhD in mathematics. Wandja’s life and work have not only paved a path for future generations of African women in the field of mathematics, but also made significant contributions to the global mathematical community.

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United StatesJewishMathematician

Ruth Aaronson Bari

Ruth Aaronson Bari (1917-2005) was an American mathematician known for her work in graph theory and algebraic homomorphisms. She dedicated herself to raising her family before returning to earn her Ph.D. in mathematics at the age of 47. Bari’s contributions to graph theory and homomorphisms were highly regarded, and she actively advocated for gender equality in academia. Her legacy lives on through the students she taught.

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United StatesMathematician

Alice Bache Gould

Alice Bache Gould, an American mathematician, philanthropist, and historian, dedicated her life to making significant contributions to the fields of mathematics and Spanish-American studies. Despite facing setbacks in mathematics due to poor health, Alice followed her true interest in Spanish-American studies and became a respected historian. Her dedication to her work earned her recognition, including becoming the only female corresponding member of the Real Academia de la Historia and being awarded the Order of Isabella the Catholic. Alice never married or had children, but formed close friendships with several women, who provided support and companionship throughout her life.

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United StatesComputer ScientistJewish

Dorothy Lewis Bernstein

Dorothy Lewis Bernstein (1914-1988) was an American mathematician known for her work in applied mathematics, statistics, computer programming, and research on the Laplace transform. She became the first woman to be elected president of the Mathematics Association of America, and made significant contributions to the field of mathematics throughout her career.

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MexicoMathematician

Manuela Garín

Manuela (Mane) Garín Pinillos de Álvarez was a Spanish-born and Cuban-raised mathematician who became one of the first women to study mathematics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). She has been named as a pioneer of mathematics in Mexico. Garín specialized in applied mathematics involving the mathematical modeling of the Earth’s magnetic field, and played a pivotal role in promoting the importance of mathematics education in Mexico.

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United StatesMathematician

Charlotte Barnum

Charlotte Cynthia Barnum, a distinguished mathematician and social activist, broke barriers in academia as the first woman to earn a PhD in mathematics from Yale University. Her love for learning and passion for mathematics guided her throughout her life, leading to groundbreaking achievements and inspiring future generations of women in STEM fields.

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MexicoMathematician

Enriqueta González Baz

Enriqueta González Baz y de la Vega was a Mexican mathematician and a trailblazer for women in mathematics in Mexico. She co-founded the Mexican Mathematical Society and became the first woman to earn a degree in mathematics at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Enriqueta’s dedication to her field continues to inspire future generations of women in mathematics.

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United StatesMathematician

Mary Nicholas Arnoldy

Mary Nicholas Arnoldy (1893–1985) was a Roman Catholic Sister of St. Joseph of Concordia (Kansas), and a mathematician. Along with M. Henrietta Reilly and Mary Domitilla Thuener, she was one of a very few women and Catholic sisters to earn a doctorate in mathematics before 1940.

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AustriaJewishMathematician

Hilda Geiringer

Hilda Geiringer, an Austrian mathematician, displayed exceptional mathematical aptitude from a young age. After completing her undergraduate degree and receiving her Ph.D., she worked as an assistant to Leon Lichtenstein and Richard Edler von Mises. Despite facing challenges as a single mother, Geiringer persisted in her work, shifting her focus to applied mathematics. She was forced to leave Germany due to discriminatory laws but continued her research in Brussels and Istanbul, contributing to the advancement of mathematical understanding.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanEngineer

Elayne Arrington

Elayne Arrington, an American mathematician and engineer, overcame numerous obstacles throughout her career to become a trailblazer for women, particularly African American women, in the fields of mathematics and engineering. Her exceptional aptitude in mathematics led her to become the second-highest scorer on the SAT in her class, despite facing discrimination in her academic journey. Despite these challenges, Arrington’s determination to succeed propelled her to become the first African American woman to graduate from the School of Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh and earn a Ph.D. in mathematics. Her accomplishments have shattered stereotypes and paved the way for future generations of women and minorities in STEM fields.

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Great BritainEducatorMathematician

Philippa Fawcett

Philippa Garrett Fawcett, the first woman to achieve the top score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos exams, was a remarkable English mathematician and educator. Her groundbreaking achievement challenged societal norms and paved the way for future generations of women in the field. Her unwavering determination and exceptional talent in mathematics played a vital role in advancing women’s rights and empowering them to pursue their passions and academic aspirations.

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GuamUnited StatesMathematician

Jennifer Balakrishnan

Jennifer Shyamala Sayaka Balakrishnan is an American mathematician known for her expertise in algorithmic number theory and arithmetic geometry. She gained prominence for leading a team that successfully solved the “cursed curve” problem, a famously difficult Diophantine equation.

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IndiaMathematicianWriter

Shakuntala Devi

Shakuntala Devi was an Indian mental calculator and writer, known as the “Human Computer”. She achieved her world record for mental calculations in 1980 and was listed in the 1982 edition of The Guinness Book of World Records. Devi’s extraordinary talent, exhibited from a young age, allowed her to simplify numerical calculations, making mathematics more accessible and enjoyable for students. Her legacy as a mathematician and advocate for human rights continues to inspire generations.

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RussiaEducatorMathematician

Nina Bari

Nina Karlovna Bari, a prominent Soviet mathematician, made significant contributions to the field of trigonometric series. Her two influential textbooks, “Higher Algebra” and “The Theory of Series,” solidified her place in the history of mathematics. Despite the challenges faced by women in academia, Bari’s remarkable achievements and dedication to her work have inspired generations of mathematicians, especially women, to thrive.

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GermanyUnited StatesAerospace Engineer

Irmgard Flügge-Lotz

Irmgard Flügge-Lotz, a German-American mathematician and aerospace engineer, revolutionized the field of discontinuous automatic control. Her pioneering work in hysteresis control systems found widespread applications in guidance systems, electronics, fire-control systems, and temperature regulation. Despite facing challenges as a woman in a male-dominated field, Flügge-Lotz’s exceptional mathematical skills and contributions to engineering earned her numerous accolades and made her an inspiration to future generations of female engineers.

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Equatorial GuineaLiberiaNigeria

Nkechi Agwu

Nkechi Madonna Adeleine Agwu is a renowned mathematics teacher and esteemed figure in academia. Born on October 8, 1962, in Enugu, Nigeria, she grew up in a family of educators. Her father, Jacob Ukeje Agwu, hailed from Nigeria, while her mother, Europa Lauretta Durosimi Wilson, belonged to Sierra Leone. Agwu’s early life was marked by the Nigerian Civil War, during which her family actively supported the Biafran side.

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BulgariaMathematician

Sofia Danova

Sofia Danova (née Simeonova; 1879–1946) was a Bulgarian philanthropist, educator, and publisher. She was the first Bulgarian woman to graduate in mathematics. Sofia’s commitment to education and her tireless efforts to uplift the underprivileged left a lasting impact on Bulgarian society. Her dedication to philanthropy and the empowerment of girls laid a strong foundation for the advancement of women’s rights and opportunities in Bulgaria.

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NigeriaMathematician

Grace Alele-Williams

Grace Alele-Williams was a trailblazing Nigerian professor of mathematics education. She became the first Nigerian woman to earn a doctorate and the first Nigerian female vice-chancellor at the University of Benin. Throughout her career, she advocated for women’s education and was dedicated to improving access to scientific and technological subjects for female African students. Her contributions to academia and education in Nigeria have left a lasting impact.

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SpainMathematician

Marta Macho Stadler

Marta Macho Stadler is a renowned Basque mathematician who specializes in scientific divulgation. She teaches geometry and topology at the University of the Basque Country and conducts research in the Geometric Theory of Foliations and Noncommutative Geometry. Her dedication to promoting women’s contributions in science extends beyond her divulgation work, as she actively collaborates in various social activities and cultural events celebrating women in science. Marta Macho Stadler’s significant contributions in the field of mathematics and her advocacy for women in science have left a lasting impact.

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United StatesMathematician

Fern Hunt

Fern Yvette Hunt, born in 1948, is an accomplished American mathematician who has made significant contributions in applied mathematics and mathematical biology. Her journey was influenced by her family and teachers. She is currently a researcher at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, focusing on the ergodic theory of dynamical systems. With a passion for mentoring and promoting diversity, Hunt has left a lasting impact on the mathematics community.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanEducator

Vivienne Malone-Mayes

Vivienne Lucille Malone-Mayes, an accomplished American mathematician and professor, overcame significant obstacles to make groundbreaking contributions to the field of mathematics. Despite facing racial segregation and discrimination, she became the fifth African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics in the United States. Her determination and resilience continue to inspire future generations in the pursuit of education and knowledge.

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GermanyMathematician

Grete Hermann

Grete Hermann was a German mathematician and philosopher known for her significant contributions to mathematics, physics, philosophy, and education. Her early work on the foundations of quantum mechanics, although initially overlooked, has since gained recognition and has been influential in the field. Her critique, if known earlier, could have potentially altered the trajectory of quantum mechanics.

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ChinaEducatorMathematician

Louise Zung-nyi Loh

Louise Zung-nyi Loh, a Chinese mathematician, physicist, and educator, made significant contributions to her fields. Her passion for learning and dedication to her studies led her to become a respected scholar. She served as the chair of the Chinese students’ club at Wellesley College and conducted research on the effect of temperature on the absorption of fluorescein. Throughout her career, she taught mathematics and physics at various institutions in China and the United States and played a crucial role in ensuring the safety of foreign faculty during the Nanjing Massacre. Her legacy as a dedicated educator and philanthropist continues to inspire future generations.

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United StatesMathematician

Ellen Hayes

Ellen Amanda Hayes, an American mathematician and astronomer, was a controversial figure in her time due to her role as a female college professor and her support for radical causes. She made significant contributions to the field of mathematics and astronomy, and was known for her strong-willed personality and dedication to social causes. Her fearless attitude and unwavering commitment to equality make her a trailblazer in women’s history.

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SwedenMathematician

Sonja Lyttkens

Sonja Lyttkens was a Swedish mathematician who made significant contributions to the field and was a champion for gender equality in academia. Not only was she the third woman in Sweden to earn a mathematics doctorate, but she was also the first woman to secure a permanent university position in the field. Her work paved the way for future generations of women mathematicians, inspiring them to break barriers and pursue their dreams.

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FranceSwitzerlandUnited States

Louise Hay

Louise Schmir, born in Metz, France in 1935, was a brilliant mathematician known for her groundbreaking work in mathematical logic. Her family fled the Nazis and immigrated to the United States, where she pursued her education and achieved remarkable success. Despite facing personal challenges, Louise Hay made significant contributions to the field of mathematics and paved the way for future women mathematicians.

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United StatesArcherMathematician

Lynette Long

Lynette Long, an influential American former professor and feminist, has dedicated her career to addressing educational disparities and advocating for women’s rights. She is well-known for her research on the math achievement of young girls and her efforts to increase the representation of women in various national symbols. Through her work, Long has inspired change and highlighted the importance of gender equality in education and society.

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United StatesMathematician

Mary W. Gray

Mary Lee Wheat Gray is an American mathematician, statistician, and lawyer who has made significant contributions to the fields of mathematics, mathematics education, computer science, applied statistics, economic equity, and discrimination law. Born on April 8, 1938, in the United States, Gray’s work has had a lasting impact on society and women’s history.

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GermanyMathematician

Klara Löbenstein

Klara Löbenstein, a German mathematician, defied societal norms and became one of the first women in Germany to obtain a doctorate in mathematics. She made significant contributions to algebraic geometry and played a critical role in solving David Hilbert’s sixteenth problem. Despite facing setbacks and emigrating to Argentina during World War II, Löbenstein’s legacy as a pioneering mathematician continues to inspire future generations.

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United StatesEducatorMathematician

Pamela E. Harris

Pamela Estephania Harris, a renowned Mexican-American mathematician, educator, and advocate for immigrants, is making significant contributions in the field of mathematics. She is the co-founder of the online platform Lathisms, an editor of the e-mentoring blog of the American Mathematical Society, and co-hosts a podcast called “Mathematically Uncensored.” Harris’s dedication to inclusivity and diversity is evident in her advocacy work and book co-authorship. Her passion for mathematics and commitment to underrepresented groups have earned her numerous awards and recognition.

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RussiaMathematician

Elizaveta Litvinova

Elizaveta Fedorovna Litvinova (1845–1919?) was a Russian mathematician and pedagogue. Despite facing many obstacles, she pursued her passion for mathematics and made significant contributions to the field of mathematics education. Her story is one of resilience, determination, and a passion for knowledge that continues to inspire women in mathematics today.

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United StatesMathematician

Sarah J. Greenwald

Sarah J. Greenwald is a distinguished professor of mathematics at Appalachian State University and a faculty affiliate of the gender, women’s, and sexuality studies program. With a passion for both mathematical research and teaching, Greenwald has made significant contributions in the fields of geometry and the scholarship of teaching and learning. She is also known for exploring the connections between mathematics and society, particularly in relation to women, minorities, and popular culture.

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United StatesMathematicianPsychologist

Christine Ladd-Franklin

Christine Ladd-Franklin was an American psychologist, logician, and mathematician who made significant contributions to the fields of psychology and mathematics. Her groundbreaking research on color vision challenged prevailing beliefs, and she was recognized with an honorary doctorate from Vassar College in 1887. Ladd-Franklin’s determination and advocacy for women’s rights paved the way for future generations of women in STEM fields.

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AustriaCyclistMathematician

Anna Kiesenhofer

Anna Kiesenhofer is an Austrian professional cyclist and mathematician. She made history by winning the gold medal in the women’s individual road race at the 2020 Summer Olympics, becoming the first Austrian to win a gold medal at the Summer Olympics since 2004 and the first Austrian to win a cycling Olympic gold medal since 1896. Alongside her athletic career, Kiesenhofer is also a postdoctoral fellow in mathematics at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.

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SwitzerlandActivistEducator

Annie Leuch-Reineck

Annie Leuch-Reineck was a Swiss mathematician and women’s rights activist who played a crucial role in the Swiss women’s movement during the 1920s and 1930s. Motivated by a deep belief in the equality of women, she dedicated her life to advocating for women’s rights and challenging societal norms. Her contributions paved the way for progress in gender equality and women’s empowerment in Swiss society.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Nicole M. Joseph

Nicole M. Joseph is an American mathematician and scholar of mathematics education. Her research focuses on the experiences of African-American girls and women in mathematics, the effects of white supremacist reactions to their work in mathematics, and the intersectional nature of educational inequity. She has authored and edited several books and was awarded the Louise Hay Award for her contributions to mathematics education.

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United StatesMathematician

Winifred Edgerton Merrill

Winifred Edgerton Merrill, a pioneer in mathematics, was the first woman to receive a degree from Columbia University and the first American woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics. Growing up in a supportive environment, she developed a strong interest in astronomy and later pursued her studies at Columbia University. Her groundbreaking achievements inspired future generations of women in academia.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Eleanor Jones

Eleanor Green Dawley Jones (1929-2021) was an American mathematician and a prominent figure in the field of mathematics. She was one of the first African-American women to achieve a Ph.D. in mathematics, breaking down barriers and paving the way for future generations. Jones dedicated her life to promoting education, advocating for civil rights, and inspiring others to pursue careers in science and mathematics.

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CanadaUnited StatesMathematician

Josephine M. Mitchell

Josephine Margaret Mitchell (1912-2000) was a Canadian-American mathematician known for her work in the mathematical analysis of functions of several complex variables. Facing discrimination throughout her career, she never gave up on her passion for mathematics. Mitchell’s perseverance and dedication, along with her contributions to the field, make her an influential figure in academia and women’s history.

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GermanyMathematician

Margarethe Kahn

Margarethe Kahn, a German mathematician and Holocaust victim, was a pioneering woman who obtained a doctorate in Germany. Despite facing opposition, she successfully defended her dissertation in 1909, becoming one of the first German women to earn a doctorate in mathematics. Tragically, her life was cut short by the Holocaust, and she went missing after deportation to Piaski, Poland in 1942.

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TanzaniaMathematician

Verdiana Masanja

Verdiana Grace Masanja is a Tanzanian mathematician specializing in fluid dynamics. She became the first Tanzanian woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics. Her dedication to mathematics education and women’s empowerment has made her a significant figure in the field.

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United StatesAerospace EngineerMathematician

Vera Huckel

Vera Huckel (1908–1999) was an American mathematician and aerospace engineer who made significant contributions to NASA’s early years. She was one of the first female “computers” at NACA, the predecessor of NASA, where she played a pivotal role in the Dynamic Loads Division.

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IranMathematician

Maryam Mirzakhani

Maryam Mirzakhani was an Iranian mathematician and professor of mathematics at Stanford University. She made tremendous contributions to the field of mathematics in areas such as Teichmüller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic geometry. Mirzakhani became the first Iranian woman to win a gold medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad and went on to become one of the first two women to receive the prestigious Fields Medal in 2014. Her legacy continues to inspire future generations in the field of mathematics.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Louise Stokes Hunter

Ella Louise Stokes Hunter, a renowned American mathematics educator, dedicated her life to teaching and mentoring students. With a passion for mathematics and education, she became the first African-American woman to earn a degree from Harvard University. Her groundbreaking achievements and unwavering commitment to the field of education continue to inspire and shape the field of mathematics education today.

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GermanyUnited KingdomUnited States

Isabel Maddison

Ada Isabel Maddison (1869 – 1950) was a British mathematician best known for her work on differential equations. Maddison had a remarkable academic journey, overcoming many obstacles as a woman in a time when higher education was not readily accessible to women. Her contributions to mathematics and her perseverance in pursuing her passion have left a lasting legacy.

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Great BritainMathematician

Catherine Hobbs

Catherine Ann Hobbs is a British mathematician and educator, known for her extensive research in singularity theory and her contributions to science policy and the advancement of women in STEM fields. She currently holds the position of a Professor and Academic Dean of the Faculty of Engineering, Environment and Computing at Coventry University.

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United KingdomMathematician

Charlotte Scott

Charlotte Angas Scott was a British mathematician who played a crucial role in the development of American mathematics and the mathematical education of women. Her groundbreaking achievements include becoming one of the first British women to earn a doctorate in mathematics and challenging the rules of the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos Exam. She dedicated her career to Bryn Mawr College, where she taught mathematics for almost four decades, inspiring generations of women to pursue mathematical studies. Recognized for her contributions, Scott became the first female President of the American Mathematical Society in 1924.

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ScotlandMathematician

Flora Philip

Flora Philip (1865-1943) was a Scottish mathematician known for her pioneering work in the field. Despite facing numerous challenges, she became one of the first women to receive a degree from the University of Edinburgh and the first female member of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society. Her dedication and determination paved the way for future generations of women in mathematics.

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ItalyActivistMathematician

Tina Pizzardo

Tina Pizzardo, an Italian mathematician and anti-fascist, dedicated her life to fighting against the oppressive regime of fascism in Italy. Her passion for mathematics led her to excel academically, and her commitment to opposing fascism shaped the course of her life. Despite facing imprisonment and personal struggles, Pizzardo’s unwavering determination and resilience continue to inspire generations of women.

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United StatesMathematician

Freda Porter

Freda Porter, a Lumbee tribe member, broke barriers as one of the first Native American women to earn a PhD in the mathematical sciences. With a passion for mathematics and the natural world, she founded Porter Scientific, Inc., an environmental consulting agency, and became a leader in the field of environmental science. Porter’s dedication to her community and advocacy for Native Americans in STEM has left a lasting impact on both academia and society.

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GermanyActivistMathematician

Frieda Nugel

Frieda Nugel (1884–1966) was a German mathematician and civil rights activist. She was one of the first German women to earn a doctorate in mathematics. Despite facing numerous challenges in her career, Nugel made significant contributions to the field of mathematics and actively promoted civil rights and better education for women. She retired in 1945 and passed away in 1966, leaving behind a legacy of academic excellence and advocacy for women’s rights.

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ScotlandEducatorMathematician

Eleanor Pairman

Eleanor “Nora” Pairman, a Scottish mathematician, made significant contributions to mathematics education for blind students. She overcame personal hardships and excelled academically, earning a scholarship to pursue further studies. Pairman eventually obtained a doctorate in mathematics, becoming only the third woman to do so at Radcliffe College. Later, she dedicated herself to teaching mathematics to blind students, creating innovative methods to convey mathematical concepts. Pairman’s pioneering work had a lasting impact on the field of mathematics education, inspiring future educators and blind individuals alike.

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United StatesMathematician

Helen Brewster Owens

Helen Brewster Owens (April 2, 1881 – June 6, 1968) was an American suffragist and mathematician. She dedicated her life to advancing both the rights of women and the field of mathematics. With a passion for gender equality and an exceptional talent for mathematics, Brewster Owens made significant contributions to both areas, leaving a lasting impact on society.

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Democratic Republic of the CongoMathematician

Rebecca Walo Omana

Rebecca Walo Omana is a Congolese mathematician, professor, and reverend sister. She became the first female mathematics professor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1982. Her mathematical interests lie in differential equations, nonlinear analysis, and modeling. Omana’s journey has been characterized by determination, resilience, and breaking societal barriers, inspiring future generations of mathematicians.

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AzerbaijanMathematician

Tamilla Nasirova

Tamilla Nasirova, an Azerbaijani mathematician, made significant contributions to the field of probability theory and semi-Markov processes. She became the first woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics in Azerbaijan and the first Azerbaijani woman to become a professor of mathematics. Nasirova taught at Baku State University for almost four decades and published numerous scientific works. She received several awards and died at the age of 86.

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CanadaUnited StatesMathematician

Cathleen Synge Morawetz

Cathleen Synge Morawetz was a Canadian mathematician known for her significant contributions to the field of mathematics, particularly in the study of the partial differential equations governing fluid flow. Her groundbreaking work in transonic flow challenged existing beliefs and paved the way for advancements in aircraft design. As a pioneering woman in mathematics, Morawetz’s legacy inspires future generations of mathematicians worldwide. She received the National Medal of Science in 1998 for her exceptional contributions to the field.

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KenyaActivistMathematician

Cecilia Wangechi Mwathi

Cecilia Wangechi Mwathi, the first woman in Kenya to become a mathematics professor, was known for her activism for higher education and inspiring Kenyan girls to study STEM. Despite growing up in poverty, she pursued education and eventually obtained a Ph.D. in mathematics. She dedicated her career to Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology (JKUAT) and fought for the rights of faculty members as the secretary general of the UASU-JKUAT faculty union chapter. Her legacy lives on through her contributions to academia and the lives she touched.

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United StatesEngineerMathematician

Virginia Tucker

Virginia Layden Tucker (1909 – January 19, 1985) was an American mathematician at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), the precursor to NASA. She played a crucial role in developing aircraft design and aerodynamics as one of the first human computers at NACA. Tucker also worked as an aerodynamicist and advocate for women in mathematics, helping to diversify the field and expand opportunities for women in engineering and science.

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United KingdomBiochemistChemist

Dorothy Maud Wrinch

Dorothy Maud Wrinch (1894-1976) was a prominent mathematician and biochemical theorist known for her groundbreaking work in deducing protein structure using mathematical principles. Born in Rosario, Argentina, she later moved to England and pursued her education in mathematics at Girton College, Cambridge. She played a significant role in supporting and promoting the work of Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein. Her contributions to the fields of mathematics and biochemistry continue to inspire scientists worldwide.

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RussiaActivistMathematician

Tatyana Velikanova

Tatyana Mikhailovna Velikanova was a mathematician and Soviet dissident who played a crucial role in the human rights movement. She fearlessly declared her affiliation with the underground periodical A Chronicle of Current Events, exposing human rights abuses in the Soviet Union. Velikanova became a target of the regime and was sentenced to prison and exile. Her unwavering dedication to the cause of human rights and contributions to the movement make her a significant figure in women’s history.

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ArgentinaEducatorMathematician

Cora Ratto de Sadosky

Corina (Cora) Eloísa Ratto de Sadosky was an Argentine mathematician, educator, and militant activist. She played a vital role in supporting democratic interests during the Spanish Civil War and aiding victims of Falangist oppression. Ratto also founded the anti-fascist Junta de la Victoria during World War II and established Columna 10, a journal denouncing the United States’ conduct in the Vietnam War. Moreover, Ratto’s contributions to mathematics education were significant, as she published essential textbooks and advanced the field worldwide. Her commitment to human rights and pursuit of knowledge left a profound impact on society.

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GermanyActivistMathematician

Marie Torhorst

Marie Torhorst (1888-1989) was a German school teacher, political activist, and East German politician. She was the Minister for People’s Education in Thuringia from 1947 to 1950, making her the first-ever female minister in the state. Torhorst’s contributions in education and mathematics, including the Carathéodory-Torhorst theorem, solidify her legacy as a pioneering figure in German politics and academia.

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JapanComputer ScientistMathematician

Emma Haruka Iwao

Emma Haruka Iwao is a Japanese computer scientist and cloud developer advocate at Google. With her expertise in the Google Cloud Platform (GCP), Iwao offers comprehensive training and support to application developers. In March 2019, she made global headlines by calculating the value of pi to an astonishing 31,415,926,535,897 digits. Continuing to push the boundaries, she shattered her own record in 2022, calculating pi to an astounding 100 trillion digits. Iwao’s groundbreaking work and dedication have earned her admiration and respect, inspiring future generations of mathematicians and technologists.

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Great BritainHistorianMathematician

Mavis Batey

Mavis Lilian Batey, born in 1921, was a remarkable British code-breaker and historian. She played a vital role in deciphering encrypted messages during World War II and made groundbreaking progress in breaking the Italian Naval Enigma machine. After the war, she pursued her passion for gardening and became a renowned historian in the field. She was honored with prestigious awards for her contributions to garden conservation and her immense impact in preserving cultural heritage.

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United StatesMathematician

Barbara Paulson

Barbara Jean Paulson (née Lewis; born April 11, 1928) was an American human computer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one of the first female scientists employed there.

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United KingdomMathematician

Joan Clarke

Joan Clarke was a brilliant English cryptanalyst and numismatist who made significant contributions to the Enigma project at Bletchley Park during World War II. She overcame gender barriers in her field and played a crucial role in breaking the German Enigma Code. Her legacy as a pioneering female cryptanalyst continues to inspire future generations in mathematics and code-breaking.

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United StatesComputer ScientistMathematician

Erna Schneider Hoover

Erna Schneider Hoover (born June 19, 1926) is an American mathematician who is best known for her groundbreaking work in computerized telephone switching systems. Her invention revolutionized modern communication by preventing system overloads and enabling more robust phone service during peak calling times. Throughout her career, Hoover was a trailblazer for women in the field of computer technology.

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United StatesAerospace EngineerAfrican American

Christine Darden

Christine Darden, an American mathematician and aeronautical engineer, dedicated her career to researching supersonic flight and sonic booms. Her groundbreaking accomplishments at NASA shattered barriers and inspired future generations of women and minorities in the field of engineering and mathematics.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanArcher

Kathryn Peddrew

Kathryn Peddrew was an African-American mathematician, engineer, and scientist who made significant contributions to aerospace technology and medical science. She played a crucial role in the NACA and NASA, working as a “human computer” and aerospace technologist. Her groundbreaking research at the National Institutes of Health on cancer and tuberculosis treatments helped save lives. Despite facing racial and gender barriers, Peddrew’s perseverance paved the way for future generations of minority scientists. She received numerous awards and recognition for her work throughout her career.

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DenmarkEducatorMathematician

Elna Munch

Elna Munch was a Danish feminist and politician who made significant contributions to women’s rights in Denmark during the early 20th century. Her academic achievements set the stage for her future activism and leadership in the women’s suffrage movement. As the vice chairperson of LKV, Elna Munch played a pivotal role in organizing local sections and mobilizing women across Denmark to fight for their right to vote. She represented Denmark at the congresses of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance from 1906 to 1923, establishing connections and collaborating with international women’s rights activists.

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United KingdomComputer ScientistMathematician

Beryl May Dent

Beryl May Dent, an English mathematical physicist and technical librarian, played a crucial role in the development of early analogue and digital computers. Her groundbreaking research on interatomic forces and data analysis has had a lasting impact on the scientific community. Despite her role as a librarian, Dent continued to contribute to scientific research and made valuable contributions to the field of semiconducting materials. Her achievements in mathematics, physics, and computer science have left an indelible mark on scientific research and engineering.

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IsraelUnited StatesArcher

Shafi Goldwasser

Shafi Goldwasser, an Israeli-American computer scientist, is widely recognized for her contributions to cryptography. With a Bachelor’s degree from Carnegie Mellon and a PhD from Berkeley, she collaborated with Manuel Blum to propose the Blum-Goldwasser cryptosystem. Goldwasser’s research focuses on computational complexity theory and cryptography, and she is known for her work on probabilistic encryption and zero-knowledge proofs. Notably, she received the Turing Award in 2012 for her advancements in cryptography.

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IndiaBusinessComputer Scientist

Dora Metcalf

Dora Metcalf, an India-born Irish entrepreneur, mathematician, and computing pioneer, made significant contributions to computing and played a crucial role in codebreaking efforts during World War II. Her career flourished as she sold comptometers throughout Ireland, but her true breakthrough came when she supplied decryption machines to codebreakers at Bletchley Park, greatly impacting the war’s outcome. Dora’s determination and pioneering spirit paved the way for future generations of women in technology.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Dorothy Vaughan

Dorothy Jean Johnson Vaughan, born in 1910 in Kansas City, Missouri, was an accomplished mathematician and a trailblazer in the field of women’s history. She was the first African-American woman to receive a promotion and supervise a group of staff at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and later NASA. Vaughan’s story gained wider recognition when she was featured in the book and movie “Hidden Figures,” highlighting her significant role in the space race. In recognition of her remarkable achievements, she was posthumously honored with the Congressional Gold Medal in 2019.

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IrelandUnited StatesComputer Scientist

Kathleen Antonelli

Kathleen Rita Antonelli, also known as Kay McNulty, was a pioneering computer programmer who made significant contributions to the early development of computing technology. Born in 1921 in Feymore, Ireland, she overcame challenges and excelled academically, ultimately becoming one of the six original programmers of the groundbreaking ENIAC computer. McNulty’s exceptional analytical skills and expertise in mathematics were instrumental in the success of the ENIAC and her work paved the way for the future of computer programming.

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United StatesMathematician

Violet B. Haas

Violet Bushwick Haas was a pioneering American applied mathematician who dedicated her career to advocating for women in STEM fields. She became a professor at Purdue University College of Engineering and made significant contributions to control theory and optimal estimation. Her resilience and dedication to supporting women students in engineering have left an indelible mark on the field of mathematics.

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BelgiumAstrophysicistMathematician

Conny Aerts

Conny Clara Aerts, born in 1966 in Brasschaat, Belgium, is a Belgian professor in astrophysics. She is known for her expertise in asteroseismology, a field that studies the interior structure and dynamics of stars. Aerts has made significant contributions to understanding stellar evolution and has been recognized with prestigious awards for her groundbreaking research. She is also an advocate for gender equality in the sciences and actively promotes women’s participation in astronomy.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanEducator

Marjorie Lee Browne

Marjorie Lee Browne (1914-1979), a pioneering African-American mathematician and educator, overcame numerous challenges to become one of the first African-American women to earn a PhD in mathematics. Her groundbreaking research and dedication to mathematics education paved the way for future generations of minority mathematicians. Although her life was tragically cut short, Browne’s legacy as a champion for diversity in STEM fields continues to inspire and empower others.

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United KingdomMathematician

Margaret Rock

Margaret Rock (1903-1983) was a mathematician who worked at Bletchley Park during World War II. Her contributions to code-breaking on the Enigma Machine were classified and remained undisclosed for many years. Despite this, Rock’s impact on cryptography and intelligence during the war is undeniable, making her a remarkable figure in women’s history.

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Great BritainMathematician

Alice Lee

Alice Lee (1858–1939) was a British mathematician and one of the pioneering women in academia. She challenged prevailing beliefs regarding intelligence and gender, making significant contributions to statistics. Her groundbreaking research on the correlation between cranial capacity and intellectual ability reshaped the field of craniology and had broader implications for society’s perception of intelligence and gender. Despite facing adversity and skepticism, her work continues to be celebrated, and she remains an inspiring figure for women and academics alike.

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United KingdomMathematician

Ada Lovelace

Ada Lovelace, born in London in 1815, was the only legitimate child of Lord Byron and Lady Byron. Despite her mother’s disapproval of her father, Lady Byron recognized Ada’s intellectual potential and nurtured her interest in mathematics. Ada became fascinated with Charles Babbage’s proposed Analytical Engine and translated an article about it, adding her own extensive notes. Her visionary mindset allowed her to see the potential of computers beyond calculations, making her a pioneer in the field of computer science.

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ChinaComputer ScientistMathematician

Wang Xiaoyun

Wang Xiaoyun, a renowned Chinese cryptographer, mathematician, and computer scientist, has made significant contributions to the field of cryptography. Born in 1966 in Zhucheng, Shandong Province, Wang showed an early aptitude for mathematics and pursued her passion by obtaining bachelor (1987), master (1990), and doctoral degrees (1993) from Shandong University.

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HungaryUnited StatesComputer Scientist

Klára Dán von Neumann

Klára Dán von Neumann, a Hungarian-American mathematician and computer scientist, was a pioneer in computer programming. She made significant contributions to the field, including programming the MANIAC I machine. Klára’s work on translating mathematical instructions into a computer language was crucial for its successful operation. Despite her groundbreaking achievements, she did not receive any official awards or recognitions.

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United StatesMathematician

Margaret K. Butler

Margaret Kampschaefer Butler (March 27, 1924 – March 8, 2013) was a remarkable mathematician who played a significant role in the development and advancement of computer software. Her contributions during the early 1950s greatly impacted the field of computer technology. As the first female fellow at the American Nuclear Society and the director of the National Energy Software Center at Argonne, Butler held prominent leadership positions in both scientific organizations and women’s groups. Her work and achievements left a lasting imprint on society, particularly in the realm of nuclear power.

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United StatesComputer ScientistMathematician

Marlyn Meltzer

Marlyn Wescoff Meltzer (1922 – December 7, 2008) was one of the original programmers of ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer. She played a crucial role in its development and, along with her colleagues, helped pave the way for the digital age. Meltzer’s dedication to volunteer work and her advocacy for women in technology further solidify her legacy as a pioneer and role model in the field of computer programming.

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United StatesMathematician

Frances Spence

Frances V. Spence was one of the original programmers for the ENIAC, the first electronic digital computer. Alongside her female colleagues, she played a crucial role in the development of early computing. Despite their contributions, their work was largely downplayed at the time due to gender stereotypes. Frances Spence’s legacy as one of the first computer programmers continues to challenge gender stereotypes in technology.

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United StatesComputer ScientistJewish

Ida Rhodes

Ida Rhodes was an influential American mathematician who played a crucial role in early computer development. Born as Hadassah Itzkowitz in Ukraine, she immigrated to the United States at the age of 13. She studied mathematics at Cornell University and went on to work on the Mathematical Tables Project. Rhodes was a pioneer in programming systems and designed the C-10 programming language. She received multiple awards for her contributions to computing.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanComputer Scientist

Evelyn Boyd Granville

Evelyn Boyd Granville overcame challenges to become the second African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics from an American university. She made significant contributions to mathematics and computer science, inspiring future generations of women in STEM fields.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Katherine Johnson

Katherine Johnson, born Creola Katherine Coleman on August 26, 1918, in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, was an American mathematician whose pioneering work at NASA paved the way for crewed spaceflights and advanced the field of orbital mechanics. Her contributions to the early days of space exploration were instrumental in the success of numerous missions and made her a trailblazer for African-American women in science and mathematics.

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United StatesComputer ScientistMathematician

Jennifer Tour Chayes

Jennifer Tour Chayes is a renowned mathematician and computer scientist, known for her expertise in data science. She is currently the Dean of the College of Computing, Data Science, and Society at the University of California, Berkeley. Throughout her career, Chayes has made significant contributions to the fields of mathematical physics, discrete mathematics, and computer science. She has received numerous awards and recognition for her groundbreaking work in data science and interdisciplinary collaboration.

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United StatesComputer ScientistJewish

Lenore Blum

Lenore Carol Blum is an American computer scientist and mathematician known for her significant contributions to real number computation, cryptography, and pseudorandom number generation. She has held prestigious positions and has been a pioneer in diversifying the fields of mathematics and computer science. Blum’s dedication to promoting diversity and empowering women in mathematics has made a lasting impact in her field.

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RussiaMathematician

Sofya Kovalevskaya

Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya, a Russian mathematician, was a pioneer for women in mathematics. She was the first woman to obtain a doctorate in mathematics, the first woman appointed to a full professorship in northern Europe, and one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor. Kovalevskaya’s achievements, set against the weight of the obstacles she had to overcome, make her a truly admirable figure in history.

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Great BritainEngineerJewish

Hertha Ayrton

Hertha Ayrton, a British engineer, mathematician, physicist, inventor, and suffragette, made significant contributions to various fields. Her passion for learning led her to study mathematics at Cambridge and excel academically. Her inventions and research in electrical engineering gained recognition, and she actively campaigned for women’s rights as a respected scientist.

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GermanyJewishMathematician

Emmy Noether

Amalie Emmy Noether, born in 1882 in Erlangen, Germany, was a remarkable mathematician known for her groundbreaking contributions to abstract algebra. Despite facing gender biases and discrimination, she pursued her passion for mathematics and made significant achievements throughout her career. Noether’s work on algebraic invariants and Noether’s theorem solidified her place in history as one of the most influential mathematicians. Her dedication and perseverance continue to inspire future generations of mathematicians.

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FranceMathematician

Sophie Germain

Marie-Sophie Germain was a notable French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher who defied societal barriers to become a pioneer in mathematics. Despite facing opposition and lacking formal education, she taught herself mathematics using her father’s library and corresponded with renowned mathematicians under a pseudonym. Germain made significant contributions to elasticity theory and worked on Fermat’s Last Theorem. Her achievements were not fully recognized during her lifetime, but her legacy has inspired future generations of mathematicians, particularly women, to pursue their passions relentlessly.

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FranceMathematicianPhysicist

Émilie du Châtelet

Gabrielle Émilie Le Tonnelier de Breteuil, Marquise du Châtelet, was a French natural philosopher and mathematician. Known for her translation of Isaac Newton’s book and her contributions to physics, she challenged societal norms and advocated for the education and empowerment of women. Her work has had a lasting impact on the intellectual and scientific landscape.

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United StatesMathematician

Karen Uhlenbeck

Karen Keskulla Uhlenbeck, born on August 24, 1942, is an American mathematician and one of the pioneers of modern geometric analysis. She is widely regarded as a trailblazer in the field and has made significant contributions to mathematics throughout her career. As a distinguished professor emeritus of mathematics at the University of Texas at Austin, she has played a pivotal role in shaping the discipline.

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United StatesMathematician

Mina Rees

Mina Rees was an American mathematician who made significant contributions to the field of mathematics and education. Despite facing discrimination and bias as a woman, she pursued a career in mathematics and went on to become the first female President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Rees’s dedication to advancing higher education and her commitment to the advancement of women in science and mathematics made her a prominent figure in academia. Her legacy continues to inspire generations of mathematicians, especially women.

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FranceAstronomerMathematician

Nicole-Reine Lepaute

Nicole-Reine Lepaute, a French astronomer and mathematician, made significant contributions to astronomy during the 18th century. Despite being mostly self-taught, she exhibited exceptional intelligence from a young age and developed a fascination with comets. Lepaute’s marriage to a clockmaker allowed her to delve deeper into her scientific pursuits, and her collaboration with Jérôme Lalande on a clockmaking book showcased her calculative abilities. Her expertise in celestial predictions and involvement in the scientific community paved the way for future generations of female astronomers.

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EgyptAstronomerMathematician

Hypatia

Hypatia (c. 350–370 – 415 AD) was a neoplatonist philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. She was renowned in her own lifetime as a great teacher and a wise counselor. Hypatia’s intellectual prowess and practical applications of mathematics and astronomy gained her acclaim and respect. Her tragic death at the hands of a mob shocked the empire and inspired future generations to oppose anti-intellectualism. Her legacy lives on as a symbol for intellectual freedom and the pursuit of knowledge.

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Great BritainScotlandAstronomer

Mary Somerville

Mary Somerville (1780-1872) was a Scottish scientist, writer, and polymath who made significant contributions to mathematics and astronomy. Her breakthrough work, “The Mechanism of the Heavens,” published in 1831, established her as a respected scholar in the scientific community. In addition to her scientific achievements, Somerville also played a role in advocating for women’s rights and equality. She passed away on November 29, 1872, leaving behind a remarkable legacy that continues to inspire generations of scientists and women around the world.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanEducator

Euphemia Haynes

Martha Euphemia Lofton Haynes, the first African-American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics, dedicated her life to education and advocacy. Her groundbreaking journey led her to earn a PhD from the Catholic University of America in 1943. She made significant contributions to the educational system in Washington, D.C., and her advocacy work played a pivotal role in ending the track system that disadvantaged African-American students. Euphemia’s enduring legacy as a trailblazer continues to inspire generations.

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United StatesMathematicianPhysicist

Njema Frazier

Njema Frazier, a prominent figure in the field of nuclear physics, has made significant contributions to scientific advancements and nuclear safety. Her passion for mathematics and science led to a successful career, including working at the Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration. Frazier is also an advocate for diversity and inclusion in STEM fields.

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United StatesAerospace EngineerAfrican American

Annie Easley

Annie Jean Easley, an American computer scientist and rocket scientist, overcame barriers and discrimination to become one of the first African-Americans to work at NASA. Her groundbreaking work in aerospace technology and her advocacy for inclusivity continue to inspire future generations.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Mary Deconge

Mary Lovenia DeConge-Watson, born in 1933 in Wickliff, Louisiana, is an American mathematician and former nun. She is known for being the 15th African-American woman to earn her Ph.D. in mathematics. DeConge-Watson’s journey towards becoming a mathematician and her contributions to the field are both inspiring and significant.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Melba Roy Mouton

Melba Roy Mouton, an American mathematician, played a crucial role in NASA’s trajectory and geodynamics programs in the 1960s. Her remarkable career spanned various key roles at NASA, including Head Mathematician for Echo Satellites 1 and 2, Head Computer Programmer, and Program Production Section Chief. Mouton’s dedication and expertise earned her prestigious awards and recognition, highlighting her vital contributions to space research and mathematics. Her legacy continues to inspire mathematicians, scientists, and women worldwide.

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United StatesMathematician

Marion Lee Johnson

Marion Lee Johnson, an American mathematician, made significant contributions to the Apollo 11 mission. Growing up in Savannah, Georgia, Marion developed a passion for mathematics and excelled academically. After overcoming setbacks, she joined Boeing Company and worked on the calculations for the Apollo 11 mission. Marion’s exceptional performance earned her a place on the Apollo/Saturn V Roll of Honor, and her contributions have inspired future generations of women in mathematics and science.

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United StatesAerospace EngineerAfrican American

Mary Jackson

Mary Jackson, a pioneering American mathematician and aerospace engineer, made significant contributions to aeronautics at NACA and NASA. Overcoming racial and gender barriers, she became NASA’s first black female engineer. Jackson’s expertise advanced aerospace technology, and her advocacy for diversity and equal opportunities left an indelible impact. Her inspiring story was featured in the book “Hidden Figures” and honored with the renaming of NASA headquarters to the Mary W. Jackson NASA Headquarters.

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United StatesMathematicianPhysicist

Dorothy McFadden Hoover

Dorothy Estheryne McFadden Hoover was an American physicist and mathematician who made significant contributions to the early days of NASA. As one of the first black women hired at Langley, she became a published physicist and mathematician and was listed as a co-author on NASA research publications. Her work supported the development of America’s first jet fighter, and her legacy continues to inspire and empower individuals today.

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United StatesAfrican AmericanMathematician

Gladys West

Gladys Mae West, an American mathematician, is renowned for her groundbreaking contributions to the modeling of the Earth’s shape and her pivotal work in the development of satellite geodesy models that were incorporated into the Global Positioning System (GPS). Her exceptional achievements have had a significant impact on scientific and technological advancements.

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